Volume 5, Issue 2, June 2020, Page: 21-30
The Nexus Between Environmental Quality and Agricultural Sector Performance: Evidence from Cameroon
Kifem Frankline Lifolav, Department of Management and Entrepreneurship, Higher Institute of Commerce and Management, The University of Bamenda, Bambili, Cameroon; Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, The University of Bamenda, Bambili, Cameroon
Tachang Pius Ayekeh, Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, The University of Bamenda, Bambili, Cameroon
Yakum Ivan Mbaombogoh, Department of Management and Entrepreneurship, Higher Institute of Commerce and Management, The University of Bamenda, Bambili, Cameroon; Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, The University of Bamenda, Bambili, Cameroon
Received: Dec. 23, 2019;       Accepted: Jan. 10, 2020;       Published: Apr. 21, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajere.20200502.11      View  63      Downloads  25
There is the growing belief that uncontrolled agricultural activities greatly reduce the quality of the environment wherein they are carried out, and in turn, this environmental degradation negatively affects agricultural sector performance as a whole. It is on the strength of this assertion that this paper examines the relationships between environmental quality (carbon dioxide emission) and agricultural sector performance (ASP) in Cameroon using the Vector Autoregressive modelling approach. Specifically, the paper attempts to determine whether environmental quality affects ASP or there is a reverse causation. Using time series data obtained from the 2018 version of the World Development Indicators from 1981 to 2016, the study reveals a negative and significant effect of the first lag of ASP on its current value while the first lag of environmental quality equally has a negative and significant influence on its current value in Cameroon over the study period. Further, there is a negative and significant effect of ASP on environmental degradation. The granger causality test shows that there is a bidirectional relationship between environmental quality and ASP in Cameroon. Finally agricultural labour negatively and significantly affects environmental degradation in Cameroon. From the findings of this study, it is recommended that the government should put in place policies that will promote agricultural produce transformation as well as preservation strategies. Also, farmers should practice farm fragmentation so as to reduce the chances of all the crops ripening at the same time. Afforestation policies should be fully implemented and agricultural development, extension and value chain strategies should be put in place. Restrictions and sanctions should be placed on initiators of bush fire and poor farming practices such as shifting cultivation and bush fallowing methods should be discouraged in favour of intensive farming through sensitization by agricultural extension services.
Environmental Quality, Agricultural Sector Performance, Vector Autoregressive Model, Cameroon
To cite this article
Kifem Frankline Lifolav, Tachang Pius Ayekeh, Yakum Ivan Mbaombogoh, The Nexus Between Environmental Quality and Agricultural Sector Performance: Evidence from Cameroon, American Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2020, pp. 21-30. doi: 10.11648/j.ajere.20200502.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Nwokoro, C. V., Chima, O. F. (2018) Evaluation of Impact of Unsustainable Agricultural Practices on Rural Poverty and Environmental Resources in Ogoni, Nigeria, International Journal of Education and Human Developments, Vol. 4, No. 4.
FAO, (2017) Challenges and Opportunities for African Food prices, Climate change, Population Growth, and HIV and AIDS. Expert meeting on how to feed the World 2050. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations Economic and Social Development delivered by Hans P. & Mkhize B.
Arias, P., Hallam, D., Krivonos, E., & Morrison, J. (2013) Smallholder integration in changing food markets. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
World Bank Prosperity Annual Report (2013) End extreme poverty, Environmental, Social and Economic Sustainability, Rome.
Hosam, E. A., Bayoumi, H., Paktko, I. (2010) Relationship between Environmental Impacts and Modern Agriculture, Obuda University e-Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 1.
Food and Agricultural organization (FAO, 2017) Water pollution from agriculture: a global review, FAO and International Water Management Institute, Research program on water, land and ecosystems, Colombo.
World Energy Outlook (WEO, 2017) Global Energy Trends International Energy Agency, secure sustainable together, OECD.
Lichtenberg, Erik. (2000) Thoughts on modern Agricultural Technologies, Human Welfare, and the environment, Fifth Annual EPA STAR Graduate Fellows Conference Panel on “The Sorcerer’s Apprentice, Global Impacts of Human Technological Development’ ’Washington, DC.
Lingard, J. (2002) Agricultural Subsidies and Environmental Change. In Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change, I. Douglas (ed). John Willey and Sons, Ltd., New Jersey, United States.
Alavanja M C R, Samanic C, Dosemeci M, Lubin J, Lynch C F, Knott C, et al., (2004), Pesticides and lung cancer risk in the agricultural health study cohort. Am j epidemiol 160: 876-885.
World Economic Outlook (WEO, 2017) Sharing the Growth, Equity and Development Report, Phnom Penh, World Bank for Cambodia Development Cooperation and Forum.
Stevens, C. (2010) Agriculture and Green Growth, (2010g), Interim Report of the Green Growth Strategy, OECD, Implementing our Commitment for a Sustainable Future, Meeting of the OECD Council at Ministerial Level.
World Bank (2007) Sharing the Growth: Equity and Development Report 2007, Phnom Penh, World Bank for the Cambodia Development Cooperation and Forum.
FAOSTAT, (2016) Food and Agricultural Organization Statistical Database, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Abia, W. Conallus, E. Shum, Richard N. Fomboh, Epole N. Ntungwe & Markjovert T. Ageh (2017) Agriculture in Cameroon: Proposed Strategies to Sustain Productivity. International Journal for Research in Agricultural Research.
Tim Everett, Mallika Ishwaran, Gian Paolo Ansaloni and Alex Rubin (2010) Economic Growth and the Environment, Defra Evidence and Analysis Series Paper 2, Department for Environmental and Rural Affairs, Defra, United Kingdom.
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Cameroon (MINADER, 2017) Annual Report on the agricultural and environmental outlook and progress, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
Ministry of Finance Cameroon (MINFI, 2019) Report on 2017 Finance Bill Report on the Nation’s Economic, Social and Financial Situation and Prospects, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
ZEF, FARA, and IRAD (2017) Country Dossier: Innovation for Sustainable Agricultural Growth in Cameroon. Program for Accompanying Research for Agricultural Innovation, Bonn, Accra and Yaoundé. hCenter for Development Research, Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa, and Institute des Recherché agricole pour le Development.
World Bank (2017) World Bank Assistance to Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: An IEG Review, Washington, DC.
MINADER (2013) Innovation for Sustainable Agricultural Growth in Cameroon, Program of Accompanying Research for Agricultural Innovation (PARI), Cameroon.
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Cameroon (MINADER, 2018) Annual Report on the agricultural and environmental outlook and progress, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training, MINEPAT (2016) National Plan of Action for Youth Employment, Inter ministerial Framework, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2010), “Payments for Environmental Services within the Context of the Green Economy,” Background Report No. 3.
National Institute of Statistics (NIS, 2015) the population of Cameroon: Reports of the presentation of the final results of the third general census of population and housing (RGPH): Central Bureau of census and populations, Ministry of Economy and Finance Yaoundé, Cameroon.
Domguia, E. N, and Njangang, H. (2019) Agricultural Growth and Environmental Quality in Cameroon: Evidence from ARDL Bound Testing Approach, LAREFA, University of Dschang, Cameroon, MPRA Paper No. 91735.
Mendelsohn, R., Nordhaus, W. D. and Shaw, D. (1994) The Impact of Global Warming on Agriculture: A Ricardian Analysis. American Economic Review, 1994, 84 (4), 753-771.
Grossman, G. M. and Krueger, A. B. (1991), “Environmental impacts of a North American Free Trade Agreement”, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 3914, NBER, Cambridge, MA.
Shafik, N. and Bandyopadhyay, S. (1992) “Economic growth and environmental quality: time series and cross-country evidence”, Background Paper for the World Development Report, Vol. 1992, The World Bank, Washington DC.
Selden, T. M. and Song, D. (1994), “Environmental quality and development: is there a Kuznets curve for air pollution?” Journal of Environmental Economics and Environmental Management, Vol. 27 No. 2, pp. 147-62.
Grossman G. M. and A. B. Krueger, (1995), “Economic Growth and the Environment”, The Quarterly, Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110 (2), pages 353-77.
Mansour, M., Salama, H., Ali, F., Abou, H. (2005) Cell and Plant Response to NACL in Zea Mays Cultivars Differencing in Salt Tolerance, Journal of General Applied Plant Physiology, 31 (1-2), pp. 29-41.
Yadav, N. (1997) Dynamic Optimization of Nitrogen use when Groundwater Contamination is internalized at the Standard in the long run. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, volume 79, issue 3, pp. 931-945.
Hettige, H., Mani, M. and Wheeler, D. (1997) Industrial Pollution in Economic Development: Kuznets Revisited, Development Research Group, World Bank.
Torras M, Boyee, K. (1998). Income, Inequality and Environmental quality. An international cross sectional analysis. In Proceedings of the 4th Biennial conference Economics, Boston University U.S.A.
Levinson, P. (2001) Preferences, Technology, and the Environment: Understanding the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 88 (30), pp. 632-643.
Panayotou, T. (2000), “Economic Growth and the Environment.” CID Working Papers 56, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
Economides G. and A. Philippopoulos, (2008) “Growth enhancing policy is the means to sustain the environment.” Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 11 (1), 207-219.
Ahmed, K. and Heng (2012) Determinants of agricultural productivity in Pakistan. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, Vol. 95, pp. 1–11.
Gilal, M., Ajmair, M. and Hussian, K. (2016) Determinants of agricultural sector growth in Pakistan, International Journal of Science and Engineering Research, vol. 7, issue 10, no 2229–5518.
Alassane, Drabo (2011) Interrelationships between Health, Environment Quality and Economic Activity, What Consequences for Economic Convergence, halshs-00552995.
Nwokoro, C. V. and Chima, O. F. (2017) Impact of Environmental Degradation on Agricultural Production and Poverty in Rural Nigeria, American International Journal of Contemporary Research, Vol. 7, No. 2.
Udah, C., Nwachukwa, N. (2015) Determinants of Agricultural GDP Growth in Nigeria, International Journal of Agricultural Research and Review: ISSN-2360-7971, vol. 3 (3), pp. 184-190.
Ali-Hossein and Abedi, Z. (2017) Relationship Between Environmental Quality and Economic Growth in Developing Countries (Based on Environmental Performance Index) Environmental Energy and Economic Research Journal, 1 (3), pp. 299-310.
Geetilaxmi Mohapatra and A. K. Giri, (2009),"Economic development and environmental quality: an econometric study in India", Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 20 Issue, 2 pp. 175-191.
World Development Indicators, WDI (2018), World Bank Group, CD ROM on statistical Indicators on Economic Performance.
FAOSTAT (2018) Production Crop Data for Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, the State of Agricultural Commodity Markets, FAO, Commodities and Trade Division, Rome.
Lutkepohl, H. (2000) Applied Time Series Econometrics, 4th Edition, European University Institute of Development Studies.
Pesaran, M. and Shin, Y. (1999) An autoregressive distributed lag modeling approach to cointegration analysis, in Econometrics and Economic Theory in 20th century: The Rangnar Frisch Centennial Symposium, (Ed.) S. Storm Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 1-33.
Taban, S. (2010) An Examination of the Government Spending and Economic Growth Nexus for Turkey using the Bond test Approach, International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, vol. 48: 187-196.
Seiler, A. (2004) Trends and Spatial Patterns in Ungulate-vehicle collisions in Sweden-Wildlife Biology, vol. 10, pp. 301-313.
Jayant, Sathaye and Andrea, Ketoff (1991) CO2 Emissions from Major Developing Countries: Better Understanding the Role of Energy in the Long Term, The Energy Journal, International Association of Energy Economics, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 161-196.
Blandford, David (2019) Agriculture and the Environment, Better policies to improve the environmental performance of the Agricultural sector, OECD.
Radoslava, K. (2016) Agriculture and its Impact on Land-Use, Environmental, and Ecosystem Services, Open access peer-reviewed chapter, DOI: 10.5772/63719.
Zeng, Y., Jin, Y. and Zhong, T. (2016) Investigating the Relationship Between Land and Labour Endowments and Agricultural Mechanization among Chinese Farmers, Selected paper Prepared for Presentation for the 2016 Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, Boston, MA.
Browse journals by subject