Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2017, Page: 27-36
Experimental Evaluation of Basin Type Solar Still for Saline and Fluoride Water Purification (A Case on Giby-Deep Well Water, Dupti, Afar-Ethiopia)
Chala Diriba Gurmu, Department of Chemical Engineering, Samara University, Samara, Ethiopia
Belay Woldeyes, School of Chemical and Bio-Engineering, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Belachew Melese, Department of Statics, Samara University, Samara, Ethiopia
Received: Dec. 2, 2016;       Accepted: Dec. 20, 2016;       Published: Jan. 21, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajere.20170201.14      View  3670      Downloads  162
Abstract
In Ethiopia 61 percent of the rural population lacks an access to improved water sources and 62 Percent of rural households are travelling 30 minutes or more to fetch drinking water daily, mostly by child and women. This study presents the purification of water that contains saline and fluoride by using solar distillation. Three different alternatives: single slope, double slope and double slope solar still integrated with parabolic solar trough were designed and installed in the compound of Samara University and daily production and purification performance was investigated from April 6/2015 to April 8/2015. Daily yield was reduced, when water level increased from 3cm to 7cm. The 3cm water level was established for all three alternatives to compare the daily yield of the three alternatives. Single basin single slope solar still, having an area of 1mx1m basin causes the recirculation of distilled water, as a result its full production capacity couldn’t be obtained. Double slope solar still integrated with parabolic solar still produces a yield 7% higher than double slope solar still of 3.16kg. The purification efficiency stills were: TDS=99.66%, Total hardness=94.7%, Total alkalinity=93.8%, Salinity=100% and fluoride=96.5%. As a result any brackish and fluoride problems currently determinant to the society to access clean water in Afar can be purified with a solar still distillation.
Keywords
Solar Still, Fluoride, Saline, Parabolic Solar Concentrator, Trough
To cite this article
Chala Diriba Gurmu, Belay Woldeyes, Belachew Melese, Experimental Evaluation of Basin Type Solar Still for Saline and Fluoride Water Purification (A Case on Giby-Deep Well Water, Dupti, Afar-Ethiopia), American Journal of Environmental and Resource Economics. Vol. 2, No. 1, 2017, pp. 27-36. doi: 10.11648/j.ajere.20170201.14
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
www.unwater.org/downloads/Water_facts_and_trends.pdf.
[2]
Umesh Bokade, Zakiuddin Syed Kazi, and Girish D Mehta, ‘’Design And Development Of Manually energized Water Distillation Device”, Int. J. Mech. Eng. & Rob. Res. Vol. 2, No1. pp. 264-68, Jan. 2013.
[3]
Anfas Mukram T and Suneesh P U “Experimental Analysis of Active Solar Still With Air Pump and External Boosting Mirrors,” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology Vol. 2, Issue 7, July 2013.
[4]
USAID Ethiopia, Fact Sheet, Water, U. S. Agency for International Development 2, 2014.
[5]
http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries_regions/eth/index.stm.
[6]
S. Abdallah, O. Badran and M. M. Abu-Khader, “Performance Evaluation of a Modified Design of a Sin-gle-Basin Solar Still,” Desalination, Vol. 219, No. 1-3, pp.222-230, 2008.
[7]
www.unicef.org/ethiopia/ET_sitan_2012.pdf, accessed on Apr1, 2015.
[8]
http://www.appropedia.org/Original:Understanding_Solar_Stills.
[9]
A. Iqbal and M. Ahmad, “development and performance analysis of a domestic solar still”, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences vol. 9, No. 7(2014).
[10]
Khalifa, A. J. N., “effect of cover tilt angle of the simple solar still on its productivity in different seasons and latitudes”, Energy Conversion and Management 52: 431-436,2010.
[11]
Bizuayehu Bogale and AbiyAlemayehu, “Optimal Design of a Standalone Photovoltaic Power Supply System for Air Conditioning Application at Samara University as an Alternative to Diesel Generator Source” ISSN: 2226-7522(Print) and 2305-3327 (Online) Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal, 1 (2): 65-71, 2012.
Browse journals by subject